The classic kite is a surprisingly rich theoretic object for advanced physics study and experimentation, with major practical applications. This ancient Chinese invention, attributed to Mozi (墨翟) in the Hundred Schools of Thought era, matches criteria of De Broglie-Bohm (Pilot-Wave) Theory. The first such pilot-wave system identified was the “walking droplet” “QM analog” [Couder, Fort, et al operating in plain sight at room temperature, offering new insights across particle physics. The “dancing kite” is a second such system, where the complex motions describe similar dynamics. This is not atomic-scale QM, but a macroscopic QM analogue with many shared features, suited for both youth physics education and expert contemplation. Moreover, kite cybernetics, whereby the kite discovers its own flight solution in wind-field chaos, is a candidate quibit model for topologically-ordered embodied computation. Because kite effects occur at the natural human scale, the low-frequency dynamics are intuitive and readily observed. Finally, the emerging engineering field of kite-based Airborne Wind Energy (AWE) is a promising solution to global energy scarcity and pollution, especially as inspired by lattice-wave models such as semiconductor engineering physics, but as polymer string and membrane long-range crystal order at multi-km GW scale. This notes highlight various physical aspects of kites, especially in lattice arrays, as an engineered metamaterial condensed matter system.
The most desirable kite line super-polymer, UHMWPE, is itself an exotic physical object with the longest liquid-crystal molecules of any common material. In the slack state, entropic liquid properties dominate, and in the tensioned state, ordered crystal properties dominate, with an internal speed-of-sound (>10k m/s) comparable to diamond.
Chinese kite and other SE Asian kite traditions evolved to this day, in many complex designs. The West credits Marco Polo with bringing the Chinese kite to Europe, where kite art evolved into aerospace. China is once again driving design advances, making most of the world’ kites. The modern power kite taps a vast superior “high wind” resource that wind towers cannot. Theoretic physics offers the most fundamental basis for this revolutionary technology, as well as representing excellence in experimental design.
A complex pilot wave field determines a kite’s observed dynamics, with the kite’s structure corresponding to an artificial atom with specific properties. Wave equations govern the kite windfield and tether, and the waves occur in packets. Full calculation is intractable by current computation.
Macroscopic phonon physics makes the following assumptions-
– Plank’s Constant’s Quantum of Action only properly applies to atomic-scale QM. For macroscopic cases, a new Planck Natural Unit, the characteristic length dimension of the object under study, correctly defines the local quantum of action. This is in accord with Reynolds Number calculation based on characteristic length. Big particles with fully QM behavior are normal. Each pulse of a 10m short-wave radio signal is macroscopic, and its expanding wavefront is fully QM to cosmic-scale. All macroscopic objects emit radio signatures that are QM, but the speed-of-light dynamics remove such waves from intuitive grasp. A better human-observable experimental model is macroscopic phonons, like Huygens original two-slit wave tank experiment. All macroscopic phonons are bosons.
– Debye temperature counts, not standard temperature. For examples, the Debye temperature and specific heat of diamond, UHMWPE, and graphene are so much higher than standard temperature, that QM statistics are strongly predicted. Even weaker materials, like many biological polymers, have a sufficiently high Debye temperature to exhibit QM.
– Macroscopic engineered strings and membranes are quasi 1D and 2D structures that conserve forces by effective low-dimensionality, naturally hosting anyon dynamics. An striking example of a standing Faraday wave on a string is a polymer ship-towing rope of about 100mm diameter that can transmit 10MW at superconducting efficiency (rope stays cool to the touch). This interpretive framework Pythagoras’ monochord harmonics as a fully QM, in fact any macroscopic event with apparent harmonics, coherence, quantization, superconductivity, and all other hallmarks of QM. Experimental prediction includes-
– Scale-invariant BES and BEC analogs in multidisciplinary cases like sociology, traffic patterns, economics, biology, etc. integrate with particle physics. Nondimensional scale analogs, like semiconductor design whose lattice dynamics can be duplicated by macroscopic analogs such as polymer lattices in freespace, acted on by flows. Other affinities with aerogels, liquid-crystals, colloids, string-net liquids, metamaterials, etc..
– Modern ship-towing by polymer cable represents around 10MW of power transmission, yet the towing cable remains cool to the touch. This is superconducting efficiency at km scale. All mechanical transmission where large forces are transferred without significant heat loss are superconducting. When an engineering polymer is tensioned, as energy is added, entropy drops; this is negative temperature.
– Two ends of a tensioned polymer rope are full QM co-related in all measurables (free energy, mass, axial polarization, spin or braid statistics, scale, Debye temp, harmonics, etc). This is QM entanglement at km scale.
– Planetary pairs like Earth and Moon are low-frequency gravity-wave generators at their characteristic dimensions and orbits. Observing the seashore tide is an optical phonon expression of an underlying graviton basis. LIGO is effectively a remote-sensing validation that the graviton carries the tidal forces anyone can observe nearby.
– The author has observed in nature that “walking” droplets are commonly created by light rain on water, and the bouncing sustained by wind-driven capillary waves. These are confirmed macroscopic “Quantum Analogs”. Maybe such phenomena deserve first-class QM particle-physics ontological status, under duly reformed interpretation.
– The hallmarks of topological order and emergent phases of matter occur in string and membrane systems like flags and kites. These fundamental macroscopic objects, in the spirit that Euler marveled at the formal deepness of archetypal toys, can be interpreted as embodied string-net solids and liquids hosting qubits to perform cybernetic quantum computations. The kite, for example, calculates a complex flight solution in response to turbulence that is not just Turing equivalent but apparently superior quantum information thermodynamics to ordinary digital control with embedded sensors, microprocessors, and actuators. Kites of membrane and string in flight are effectively new quantum phases of matter.
The phonon approach to macroscopic QM opens new engineering vistas. The effects are especially striking in quasi one- and two-dimensional “rag and string” structures. Consider a airborne polymer lattice with crystal geometry extending up to the troposphere, wind- or pumping-supported by periodic kite membrane elements, and extended horizontally to planetary scale. Airborne wind energy could be harvested in bulk in the form of classical lattice waves that drive a network of generators on the ground. On average the wind is always blowing at the planetary scale, and the lattice could bridge the gaps by contributing energy to “reverse-pump” the kite elements to sustain lift.
pilot wave theory`
engineering similarities of “kite-matter” meta-material with liquid-crystals, aerogels, meta-materials, semiconductor design, and so on.
Why bouncing droplets are a pretty good model of quantum mechanics
Robert Brady and Ross Anderson University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory
Questioning the Foundations of Physics: Which of Our Fundamental Assumptions …edited by Anthony Aguirre, Brendan Foster, Zeeya
A crude collection of loose notes and links extending theoretic consideration of kite single-unit oscillation to kite lattice oscillations, toward formalizing GW-scale AWES concepts-
AWES lattice-wave theory is proposing that kite “rag and string” is a real-world case of “peculiar anyonic statistics of edge excitations in quantum information processing devices that are topologically protected from decoherence”*.
The anyonic kite-stuff interpretation is fertile, explaining many effects and suggesting solutions; for example, the short service life of a flogging sail can be modeled as a violently uncontrolled flux of anyonic creases and moving edge-concentrations. The apparent solution is to avoid flogging by jibing fabric sails in high-duty crosswind cycles, rather than tacking them. The “quantum information processing” part is quantum-analog passive control theory as the best theory-of-operation. “Topological protection” is the redundant many-connected structure of mathematical crystal lattice groups, with reduced kite breakaway statistics.
* Iiacopo Carusotto “…is it possible to take advantage of the peculiar anyonic statistics of edge excitations in quantum information processing devices that are topologically protected from decoherence? Nobody knows yet…”
The origin of SuperLattice physics by Hans Bethe in 1935, whose general features match kite lattice design and dynamics. Our superlattices consist of lifters, power-wings, and drogues with long-range order evident-
lattice wave models are well developed in modern Seismology. A virtual FEA lattice is projected on the geological space to analyse seismic energy propagation. Reanalysis of this lattice model can inform theoretic AWES lattices at realistic characteristic megascale, rather than just reasoning over meso- and microscopic crystal models-
Inverted Boltzmann distribution at ultra-high temperatures suggests that BECs emerge at that end of the spectrum
Long Range Order
Adopting lattice-wave kite farm mechanics linearizes quasi-gaseous kite farm mechanics of close-spacing single-line-kite farm units. Heretofore, designers had to settle for lower control reliability and sparse unit spacing, with far lower power density by land area and reserved airspace, which are critical real-world metrics.
Application of Gabor Atoms, Wave Atoms, and the like, is just current state-of-the-art of harmonic mathematical functions and their ontological interpretations.
This paper nicely presents a wavelet basis for estimating aircraft aeroelastic dynamics-
WikiP- “Gabor (in 1946) appliedperp ideas to sound, allowing an analogy between sound and quanta. “
I finally found where [Gabor 1946] stated his time-frequency representation (TFR) as following QM “rather closely”, including “…replacing Planck’s Constant h with unity…”, which is precisely what I had been proposing for the last two years in my kite theoretic circles.
We impose “analogy” to distinguish between atomic-scale QM defined by Planck’s Constant, and the exact same statistical mechanics applied at macroscopic scale to our kite phonons, where we define our own Plank Units based on our domain’s characteristic length scale and frequencies. To define our new constant in its most basic form applies the vertical atmospheric (“wind column”) as the first-order fundamental limiting dimension.
A logical ad hoc scale unit for current AWES is the wind-harvesting unit cell that fits below FAA designated 2000ft ceiling, allowing our lattice units to sprawl horizontally to planetary dimensions, and letting the vertical limit range toward 10km high (~tropopause), as NextGen airspace gradually opens up.
Sample citation of wavelet analysis entering mainstream aeroelastic science-
WAVELET ANALYSIS TO CHARACTERISE NON-LINEARITIES AND PREDICT LIMIT CYCLES OF AN AEROELASTIC SYSTEM RICK LIND, KYLE SNYDER AND MARTY BRENNER NASA Dryden Flight Research Center
Wave Atoms and Sparsity of Oscillatory Patterns Laurent Demanet† and Lexing Ying‡ † Department of Mathematics, Stanford University, Stanford CA94305 ‡ Department of Mathematics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 June 2006, revised February 2007
Another view of Planck’s Constant as fundamentally misinterpreted-
Is Planck’s Constant h a “Quantum” Constant? An Alternative Classical Interpretation
Timothy H. Boyer Department of Physics, City College of the City University of New York
Bush, J.W.M, 2015. The new wave of pilot-wave theory, Physics Today, 68 (8), 47-53. pdf
de Broglie L (1926) Ondes et mouvements (Gautier Villars, Paris)
Bohm D (1952) A suggested interpretation of the quantum theory in terms of hidden variables. Phys Rev 85:166–179
Bush at MIT is a leading PW researcher-
Information is thermodynamical in Information Theory, as posed by [Shannon 1948]. Quantum Information Theory inherits Shannon’s examples with added insights and predictions-
“In order to obtain the maximum power transfer from a generator to a load a transformer must in general be introduced so that the generator as seen from the load has the load resistance. The situation here is roughly analogous. The transducer which does the encoding should match the source to the channel in a statistical sense. The source as seen from the channel through the transducer should have the same statistical structure as the source which maximizes the entropy in the channel.”
Modern mathematics is an incomplete project Many things can be said in fractured dialects that are not yet reducible to integrated form. We pick and choose our tools for the AWES architecture at hand, using crude normalization to match factors up. The problem is to start from correct-enough engineering-design assumptions, or the math is GIGO. Lattice Wave oscillation dynamics of dense kite arrays is presented as a better starting assumption than sparse single-line/single-anchor AWES units, as has been the common assumption. A statistical-mechanics mathematical basis emerges from the lattice assumption.
A new kind of soft-kite disc wing was recently proposed by kPower for AWES iso-lattice, already constructable to the giant scale of conventional megascale decelerators [US Military, NASA, etc.], but constrained by a pattern of risers and fabric ribs into a thin flat (planar) geometry, for high L/D sweeping crosswind semi-chaotically at high velocity, developing high power. Ordered motion would be imposed by a second set of bridle lines radiating in-plane from the disc, to both tap the power and provide control actuation. Large cross-linked lattices of such wings could semi-passively self-synchronize for naturally coherent high-Q output.
On Friday, December 4, 2015 12:40 PM, dave santos <firstname.lastname@example.org> wrote:
“Dancing” kite flight, including AWE, can be modeled as a collection of harmonic oscillators, effectively “Einstein matter” . Out of this matter wavelet-based (TFR) Gabor Atoms or Wave Atom packets can be built.
A basic kite moves within six degrees-of-freedom (pitch, roll, yaw, heave, sway, surge). Each of these dimensions is a harmonic oscillator coupled to all others in complex collective motion powered by wind. A “pumping” AWES cyclically taps power from one or more of its most fundamental motions. A rotary AWES is simply the smoothest cycle, each rotation equivalent to a pumping cycle in phase-space.
Two kinds of sustained harmonic oscillation are conventionally defined; driven and parametric. Driven oscillation is the idea of external repeated kicking of an oscillator into motion, but parametric oscillation is more subtly sustained by shifting internal moment(s)-of-inertia. The classic example is a child on a swing either pushed by another or AWES motions motions usually interact parametrically and is a proposed basis of optimal passive-automation. We are slowly mastering the parametrics of our pumping AWES to ultimately harvest power effectively across a broad spectrum of wind and load conditions.
We are gradually learning to formally interpret a kite airframe’s complex inherent motions in a noisy wind field, with wake interactions as additional variables, in varied parametrical forms, as only marginally computable, but that combine as bulk constructive (promoting oscillation) or destructive (damping oscillation) forces.
Like many other “simple” physical objects, the kite in its wind field intuitively models as a wavelet-based (TFR) Gabor Atom or Wave Atom packet. The kite dances by internal and external parameters of a unified oscillating and standing wave field. Particle-wave duality is evident, but like many famous visual illusions, our attention flips back and forth between interpretations.
External parametric influences on a flying kite-qua-particle define its Pilot-Wave field, showing flight to have a strong non-local causal basis, but still within classical principles. Besides common wind field turbulence streaming past the kite, the kite’s wake also strongly determines the flight trajectory, as a form of “memory” in the pilot-wave field. The kite tether is also pa ng on Schrodinger.
PWT is a classical deterministic interpretation of QM favored by Einstein, Bell, and other notable champions, but vilified by the Copenhagen School, which embraced an interpretation of nihilistic meaningless in the cultural hangover left by the descent from Strindburg-mania to World war I.
What canonical physics equations best model the the kite as a hydrodynamic quantum analogue? Madelung’s recasting of Schrodinger’s equation into Euler’s hydrodynamic form and De Broglie’s deterministic Pilot-Wave interpretation of QM. DeBroglie’s scheme is a double pilot-wave. In the kite case, the kite is expressed as the original Schrodinger wave function, then DeBroglie adds in a realist pilot-wave field, where the nihilist Copenhagen school only offers a probability function. Both views are mathematically consistent, but the pilot wave interpretation opens the door wider to new engineering-science, including megascale quantum-analog kite lattices.